Sabtu, 02 Maret 2024

SEJARAH KEDOKTERAN NUKLIR 4 : Expansion and Diversification (1970-Present)

 The latter part of the 20th and early 21st centuries have been marked by remarkable advancements in nuclear medicine, notably in imaging technologies and therapeutic applications. These developments have significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose and treat various medical conditions, especially cancer.

PET and SPECT Imaging (1970s-1980s)

  • Development of PET and SPECT: In the 1970s and 1980s, two major imaging technologies emerged in nuclear medicine: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT).
  • Functional Imaging Capabilities: Both PET and SPECT represented a significant leap forward because they offered more than just structural imaging; they provided functional and metabolic information. PET scans are particularly effective in detecting metabolic activity in tissues, making them highly valuable in oncology, neurology, and cardiology. While offering slightly lower resolution than PET, SPECT is more widely available and less expensive, making it a valuable tool for various clinical applications.

Therapeutic Advances (1990s-2000s)

  • Radioimmunotherapy and Targeted Therapies: The 1990s and 2000s saw significant advancements in the therapeutic applications of nuclear medicine. This period witnessed the rise of radioimmunotherapy and targeted radionuclide therapies, which allowed for more precise targeting of cancer cells while minimising damage to healthy tissues.
  • Improved Cancer Treatment: These approaches involve attaching radioactive particles to antibodies or other molecules that specifically target cancer cells. This method has proven particularly effective in treating certain types of cancers, such as lymphoma and prostate cancer, providing a more personalised and effective treatment option.

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